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Constrained Ensemble Kalman Filter for Distributed Electrochemical State Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Published in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, February 18, 2020
This article proposes a novel model-based estimator for distributed electrochemical states of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Through systematic simplifications of a high-order electrochemical–thermal coupled model consisting of partial differential-algebraic equations, a reduced-order battery model is obtained, which features an equivalent circuit form and captures local state dynamics of interest inside the battery. Based on the physics-based equivalent circuit model, a constrained ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is pertinently designed to detect internal variables, such as the local concentrations, overpotential, and molar flux. To address slow convergence issues due to weak observability of the battery model, the Li-ion’s mass conservation is judiciously considered as a constraint in the estimation algorithm. The estimation performance is comprehensively examined under a wide operating range. It demonstrates that the proposed EnKF-based nonlinear estimator is able to accurately reproduce the physically meaningful state variables at a low computational cost and is significantly superior to its prevalent benchmarks for online applications.
Dispatch Planning of a Wide-Area Wind Power-Energy Storage Scheme Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Technique
Published in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, December 3, 2020
This article addresses the challenging task of developing a procedure for the day-ahead dispatch planning of wind power which emanates from a wide geographical area. Using the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition technique, it is shown that the low-frequency components of the area aggregated wind power account for the largest proportions of the perturbing energy harnessed from the wind. By taking advantage of the slow-varying characteristics of the low-frequency components, accurate forecast of these components is readily obtained and incorporated into the developed dispatch planning procedure. The dispatchability of the wide-area wind generation is facilitated by the buffering actions offered by a centralized power dispatch energy storage system, operating under a proposed power flows control strategy. The efficacy of the developed procedure is illustrated using a pumped hydroelectric system as the dispatch energy storage medium.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, March 17, 2021
This paper proposes a new fast chargingstrategy for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. The approach relies on an experimentally validated high-fidelity model describing battery electrochemical and thermal dynamics that determine the fast charging capability. Such a high-dimensional nonlinear dynamic model can be intractable to compute in real-time if it is fused with the extended Kalman filter or the unscented Kalman filter that is commonly used in the community of battery management. To significantly save computational efforts and achieve rapid convergence, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) is selected and tailored to estimate the nonuniform Li-ion battery states. Then, a health- and safety-aware charging protocol is proposed based on successively applied proportional-integral (PI) control actions. The controller regulates charging rates using online battery state information and the imposed constraints, in which each PI control action automatically comes into play when its corresponding constraint is triggered. The proposed physical constraint-triggered PI charging control strategy with the ETKF is evaluated and compared with several prevalent alternatives. It shows that the derived controller can achieve close to the optimal solution in terms of charging time and trajectory, as determined by a nonlinear model predictive controller, but at a drastically reduced computational cost.
Adaptive Ensemble-based Electrochemical-Thermal Degradation State Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Published in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, July 14, 2021
In this article, a computationally efficient state estimation method for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is proposed based on a degradation-conscious high-fidelity electrochemical–thermal model for advanced battery management systems. The computational burden caused by the high-dimensional nonlinear nature of the battery model is effectively eased by adopting an ensemble-based state estimator using the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman filter (SEIKF). Unlike the existing schemes, it shows that the proposed algorithm intrinsically ensures mass conservation without imposing additional constraints, leading to a battery state estimator simple to tune and fast to converge. The model uncertainty caused by battery degradation and the measurement errors are properly addressed by the proposed scheme as it adaptively adjusts the error covariance matrices of the SEIKF. The performance of the proposed adaptive ensemble-based Li-ion battery state estimator is examined by comparing it with some well-established nonlinear estimation techniques that have been used previously for battery electrochemical state estimation, and the results show that excellent performance can be provided in terms of accuracy, computational speed, and robustness.
Published in IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, August 17, 2021
To unlock the promise of electrified transportation and smart grids, emerging advanced battery management systems (BMSs) will play an important role in the health-aware monitoring, diagnosis, and control of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries (see “Acronyms Used in This Article”). Sophisticated physics-based battery models incorporated into BMSs can offer valuable internal battery information to achieve improved operational safety, reliability, and efficiency and to extend the battery lifetimes. However, because they are developed from fundamental electrochemical and thermodynamic principles, rigorous physics-based models are saddled with exceedingly high cognitive and computational complexity for practical applications.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, November 19, 2021
This article proposes an adaptive state-of-health (SOH) estimation method for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries using machine learning. Practical problems with feature extraction, cell inconsistency, and online implementability are specifically solved using a proposed individualized estimation scheme blending offline model migration with online ensemble learning. First, based on the data of pseudo-open-circuit voltage measured over the battery lifespan, a systematic comparison of different incremental capacity features is conducted to identify a suitable SOH indicator. Next, a pool of candidate models, composed of slope-bias correction (SBC) and radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs), are trained offline. For online operation, the prediction errors due to cell inconsistency in the target new cell are then mitigated by a proposed modified random forest regression (mRFR)-based ensemble learning process with high adaptability. The results show that compared to prevailing methods, the proposed SBC-RBFNN-mRFR-based scheme can achieve considerably improved SOH estimation accuracy (15%) while only a small amount of early-age data and online measurements are needed for practical operation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed SBC-RBFNN-mRFR algorithms to real-world operation is validated using measured data from electric vehicles, and it is shown that a 38% improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, November 25, 2021
Considered as one of the ultimate energy storage technologies for electrified transportation, the emerging all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have attracted immense attention due to their superior thermal stability, increased power and energy densities, and prolonged cycle life. To achieve the expected high performance, practical applications of ASSBs require accurate and computationally efficient models for the design and implementation of many onboard management algorithms so that the ASSB safety, health, and cycling performance can be optimized under a wide range of operating conditions. A control-oriented modeling framework is thus established in this work by systematically simplifying a rigorous partial differential equation (PDE)-based model of the ASSBs developed from underlying electrochemical principles. Specifically, partial fraction expansion and moment matching (PFE-MM) are used to obtain ordinary differential equation-based reduced-order models (ROMs). By expressing the models in a canonical circuit form, excellent properties for control design, such as structural simplicity and full observability, are revealed. Compared to the original PDE model, the developed ROMs have demonstrated high fidelity at significantly improved computational efficiency. Extensive comparisons have also been conducted to verify its superiority to the prevailing models due to the consideration of concentration-dependent diffusion and migration. Such ROMs can thus be used for advanced control design in future intelligent management systems of ASSBs.
Multistage State of Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery With High Tolerance to Heavily Partial Charging
Published in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, January 21, 2022
This article proposes a multistage SOH estimation method with a broad scope of applications, including the unfavorable but practical scenarios of heavily partial charging. In particular, different sets of health indicators (HIs), covering both the morphological incremental capacity features and the voltage entropy information, are extracted from the partial constant-current charging data with different initial charging voltages to characterize the aging status. Following this endeavor, artificial neural network based HI fusion is proposed to estimate the SOH of LIB precisely in real time. The proposed method is evaluated with long-term aging experiments performed on different types of LIBs. Results validate several superior merits of the proposed method, including high estimation accuracy, high tolerance to partial charging, strong robustness to cell inconsistency, and wide generality to different battery types.
Published in IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, February 17, 2022
The peak power of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) reflects its capability to continuously absorb or release energy. Accurate estimation of peak power is essential for the safe, reliable, and efficient operation of VRB systems, but also challenging as it is limited by various factors, such as currents, flow rates, temperature, and state of charge. This article proposes a new online model-based peak power estimation scheme for VRBs. First, the model parameters and system states are accurately estimated using the recursive least squares with forgetting and the unscented Kalman filter, respectively. Next, based on a linear time-varying VRB model and the estimated states, the peak power estimation is formulated into an optimal control problem, and the problem is solved using the receding horizon control (RHC). The influence of the predictive horizon on the estimated peak power is discussed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed RHC-based peak power estimation scheme is experimentally verified on a 5-kW/3-kWh VRB platform.
Design of A Two-Stage Control Strategy of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Energy Storage Systems for Grid Application
Published in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, June 10, 2022
The low energy conversion efficiency of the vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) system poses a challenge to its practical applications in grid systems. The low efficiency is mainly due to the considerable overpotentials and parasitic losses in the VRB cells when supplying highly dynamic charging and discharging power for grid regulation. Apart from material and structural advancements, improvements in operating strategies are equally essential for achieving the expected high-performance VRB system, although an optimized solution has not been fully exploited in the existing studies. In this paper, a two-stage control strategy is thus developed based on a proposed and experimental validated multi-physics multi-time-scale electro-thermo-hydraulic VRB model. Specifically, in the first stage, the optimal flow rate of the VRB is obtained based on online optimization to reduce parasitic loss and enhance instantaneous system efficiency, and the result serves as the set point of a feedback flow rate controller. In the second stage, dual time scales are specifically considered. And the current and flow rate controllers are designed to meet the highly varying power demands for grid-connected applications. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified under a scenario to smooth wind power generation. Comparative studies show that compared to the prevailing approaches, higher efficiency can be achieved in tracking the theoretical optimal power profiles for online battery control.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, February 2, 2023
We propose a novel nonlinear control approach for fast charging of lithium-ion batteries, where health- and safety-related variables, or their time derivatives, are expressed in an input-polynomial form. By converting a constrained optimal control problem into an output tracking problem with multiple tracking references, the required control input, i.e., the charging current, is obtained by computing a series of candidate currents associated with different tracking references. Consequently, an optimization-free nonlinear model inversion-based control algorithm is derived for charging the batteries. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method using a spatially discretized high-fidelity pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D) model with thermal dynamics. Conventional methods require computationally demanding optimization to solve the corresponding fast charging problem for such a high-order system, leading to practical difficulties in achieving low-cost implementation. Results from comparative studies show that the proposed controller can achieve performance very close to nonlinear model predictive control but with much lower computational costs and minimal parameter tuning efforts.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, April 11, 2023
We propose a novel method based on physics-guided machine learning (PGML) to predict the aging trajectories of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in an early age. First, electrode-level physical information is incorporated into the model training process to predict the aging trajectory’s knee point (KP). The relationship between the identified KP and the accelerated aging behavior is then explored, and an aging trajectory prediction algorithm is developed. The prior knowledge of aging mechanisms enables a transfer of valuable physical insights to yield accurate KP predictions with small data and weak correlation feature relationship. Based on a Li[NiCoMn]O 2 cell dataset, we demonstrate that only 14 cells are needed to train a PGML model for achieving a lifetime prediction error of 2.02% using the data of the first 50 cycles. In contrast, at least 100 cells are needed to reach this level of accuracy without the physical insights.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, June 1, 2023
In a dynamic distribution market environment, residential prosumers with solar power generation and battery energy storage devices can flexibly interact with the power grid via power exchange. Providing a schedule of this bidirectional power dispatch can facilitate the operational planning for the grid operator and bring additional benefits to the prosumers with some economic incentives. However, the major obstacle to achieving this win-win situation is the difficulty in 1) predicting the nonlinear behaviors of battery degradation under unknown operating conditions and 2) addressing the highly uncertain generation/load patterns, in a computationally viable way. This paper thus establishes a robust short-term dispatch framework for residential prosumers equipped with rooftop solar photovoltaic panels and household batteries. The objective is to achieve the minimum-cost operation under the dynamic distribution energy market environment with stipulated dispatch rules. A general nonlinear optimization problem is formulated, taking into consideration the operating costs due to electricity trading, battery degradation, and various operating constraints. The optimization problem is solved in real-time using a proposed ensemble nonlinear model predictive control-based economic dispatch strategy, where the uncertainty in the forecast has been addressed adequately albeit with limited local data. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm has been validated using real-world prosumer datasets.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, August 10, 2023
We propose a novel nonlinear control approach for fast charging of lithium-ion batteries, where health- and safety-related variables, or their time derivatives, are expressed in an input-polynomial form. By converting a constrained optimal control problem into an output tracking problem with multiple tracking references, the required control input, i.e., the charging current, is obtained by computing a series of candidate currents associated with different tracking references. Consequently, an optimization-free nonlinear model inversion-based control algorithm is derived for charging the batteries. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method using a spatially discretized high-fidelity pseudo-two-dimensional (P2D) model with thermal dynamics. Conventional methods require computationally demanding optimization to solve the corresponding fast charging problem for such a high-order system, leading to practical difficulties in achieving low-cost implementation. Results from comparative studies show that the proposed controller can achieve performance very close to nonlinear and linearized model predictive control but with much lower computational costs and minimal parameter tuning efforts.
We propose a novel fast-charging control framework for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries that can leverage a class of models including the high-dimensional, electrochemical-thermal pseudo-two-dimensional model. The control objective is to find the highest battery current while fulfilling various operating constraints. Conventionally, computationally demanding optimization is needed to solve such a constrained optimal control problem when an electrochemical-thermal model is used, leading to practical difficulties in achieving low-cost implementation. Instead, this paper provides an optimization-free solution to Li-ion battery fast charging by converting the constrained optimal control problem into an output tracking problem with multiple tracking references. The required control input, i.e., the charging current, is derived by inverting the battery model. As a result, a nonlinear inversion-based control algorithm is obtained for Li-ion battery fast charging. Results from comparative studies show that the proposed controller can achieve performance close to nonlinear model predictive control but at significantly reduced computational costs and parameter tuning efforts.
Undergraduate course, University 1, Department, 2014
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Workshop, University 1, Department, 2015
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